PCB & PCBA MANUFACTURER
Posin is a PCB prototype fabrication and PCB assembly factory. We supply high precision multilayer PCB, high frequency PCB, microwave circuit board, Rigid-flex PCB, IC Substrate, HDI PCB board and PCB design, PCBA assembly services. Posin provides PCB samples, small batch production, and stable production of large quantities of the Printed Circuit Board.
Posin is your partner to support your electronic design and win the market for your products better, faster and lower cost.
We believe in providing a transparent and open supply chain for all our customers. We respect customer, understand customer, reciprocate customer and offer high-quality products and service continuously.
Our experienced and passionate team will guide you through the entire production. We can provide all necessary services and inputs, such as design, procurement, developing, assembly, production and logistics.
Posin FOCUS ON ONE-STOP SERVICE WITH PCB AND PCBA.
China PCB assembly service
Posin manufactures microwave radio frequency(RF) PCB, hybrid high-frequency Print Circuit Board, multilayer PCB, HDI PCB, rigid-flex PCB, metal-based PCB, ceramic PCB, IC substrate, IC test Board. We have a deep research on PCB with special requirements such as blind buried hole PCB, back drilling PCB, step slot PCB, IC Substrate PCB, ultra-thick copper PCB. Posin® provides PCB design, PCB layout, PCB prototype fabrication, and PCBA services.
Quality: Quality is a key factor when selecting a PCB assembly manufacturer. It is important to ensure that the manufacturer is reputable and has a track record of producing high-quality products. Quality assurance processes should also be in place, with a commitment to consistent and reliable performance.
Price: Price is another important factor to consider when selecting a PCB assembly manufacturer. It is important to look for the most competitive price while ensuring that the desired product meets expectations.
Delivery timescales: Time is of the essence in electronics manufacturing, so delivery timescales are an important factor to consider. It is important to check lead times as well as any additional fees involved when placing an order.
Compliance: It is important to check that the manufacturer is compliant with industry standards, including any relevant safety certifications.
Services: It is important to check which services are offered by the manufacturer, such as prototyping, testing, and data analysis. These services can help speed up the product development process and reduce overall cost.
Support: Last but not least, it is important to look for a manufacturer that offers support and responsive customer service. This is especially important when products require updates or corrective action over the course of a project.
2. What's the difference between PCB vs PCBA?
PCB is a printed circuit board because it is made by electronic printing, so it is called a "printed" circuit board. PCB is an important electronic component in the electronic industry. It is the support of electronic components and the carrier of electrical connection of electronic components. PCB has been widely used in the production of electronic products.
PCBA / PCB Assembly generally refers to a processing flow, which can also be understood as the finished circuit board, that is, PCBA can only be counted after the processes on the PCB are completed. PCB refers to an empty printed circuit board with no parts on it. The above is the difference between PCB and PCBA.
SMT and dip are both ways to integrate parts on the circuit board. The main difference is that SMT does not need to drill holes on PCB, but in dip, it needs to insert the pin pin pin into the drilled hole.
SMT (surface mounted technology) mainly uses the mounting machine to mount some micro and small parts on the circuit board. Its production process is PCB positioning, solder paste printing, mounting by the mounting machine, reflow oven, and inspection.
The dip is a "plug-in", that is to insert parts on the PCB board. It is a kind of plug-in integrated part when some parts are large in size and not suitable for mounting technology. Its main production processes are back glue, plug-in, inspection, wave soldering, plate brushing, and finished inspection.
Check for experience: It’s always recommended to evaluate the experience level of a PCB assembly manufacturer. Experienced PCB assembly manufacturers tend to have better products and services, and know the ins and outs of the industry.
Inquire about certifications and qualifications: Top quality manufacturers of PCB assemblies get certified by third-party organizations. Certifications from organizations like UL, CSA, and ANSI indicate that a company meets or exceeds the industry standard in safety, quality, and reliability.
Examine their manufacturing process: Find out how the PCB manufacturer creates its assemblies. They should be able to provide a process flow chart that documents their steps. This will enable you to assess their design, materials, and overall production process.
Assess customer service: High-quality manufacturers will have good customer service. They should be able to offer customer support, answer any questions or inquiries promptly, and be able to provide helpful advice and guidance.
Check out customer reviews: Read online reviews or talk to people you know who have used the company before. Read customer reviews to gain insights on their experience. This will help you see how satisfied customers are with the services and products being provided.
Outsourcing PCB assembly services to a specialized manufacturer has numerous advantages. Firstly, it can save your business time and money. By using a specialist manufacturer, you can reduce the time and cost associated with in-house design, fabrication and assembly. This can help businesses accelerate the product development process and get products to market faster. Secondly, a specialist manufacturer can provide access to expert advice and bespoke solutions tailored to the requirements of your business or product. They can advise on the best possible design available, ensuring the reliability, quality and affordability of your product. Thirdly, a specialist manufacturer is more likely to have the latest technology and high-tech manufacturing processes available, which can enable greater accuracy and precision during production. Finally, by outsourcing, businesses can reduce their overhead costs associated with keeping in-house technology and staff up to date and specialized in recent developments in the industry. All of these advantages can help businesses optimize their product production process and reduce the overall cost of goods sold.
Working with a reliable and experienced PCB assembly manufacturer can go a long way in ensuring timely delivery and efficient manufacturing processes. Here are some tips to keep in mind:
Have a clear timeline: When working with a PCB assembly manufacturer, it is important to have a defined timeline that outlines the delivery of your product from production to delivery. Make sure both you and the manufacturer stick to this timeline in order to ensure timely delivery.
Establish communication: Timely communication with your manufacturer can help you monitor the progress of your orders. Make sure you know who to contact if there are any issues along the way.
Be detailed: Provide your manufacturer with all of the specifications for your order, including the materials, components, and processes needed. Having this information detailed and ready to go will mean that manufacturing can happen as quickly and efficiently as possible.
Quality control: It is important to establish quality control during the manufacturing process. The manufacturer should always be aware of the quality standards that need to be met in order to deliver a finished product that meets or exceeds customer expectations.
By following these tips, you can ensure that your PCB assembly manufacturer will be able to deliver your order on time and with the highest quality.
A PCB assembly manufacturer should possess a wide range of technological capabilities in order to meet the needs of various customers and ensure quality control. These capabilities include a high-level of engineering experience and superior customer service to ensure customer satisfaction. Additionally, the manufacturer should have the capacity for automated assembly, surface mount technology, and manual assembly services, as well as highly skilled soldering capabilities. It also should be able to offer rapid prototyping services, a comprehensive testing system, and refurbishment services. Furthermore, the manufacturer should be proficient in routing and drilling, automated optical inspection (AOI), among other related capabilities. The ability to recognize and respond to design-for-manufacturability (DFM) changes is additional important, cost-saving capability. In addition to this, the company should also possess the capacity to assemble and test specialized components such as ball grid array (BGA) and chip-on-board (COB). Furthermore, the company should update its technologies according to industry standards and trends and strive to build a competitive advantage by utilizing the latest and most advanced automation tools.
BOM quotation, please send your BOM to Posin, tell the number of PCB to be made, we will give you a PCBA quote within 24 hours. BOM must include quantity, tag number, manufacturer name, and manufacturer model.
Before the PCB assembly is delivered, we will carry out various tests on it.
- Visual inspection: general quality inspection
- X-ray test: check whether there is short-circuit cold welding or bubble problem in BGA, QFN, and another welding.
- Automatic optical detection: check whether there are false welding, short circuit, few parts, polarity reversal, etc.
- Online testing
- Function test (according to the test steps you provided)
A full set of PCBA is our core business, even in the proofing stage. We use our professional and resources to do PCB proofing, material procurement, PCBA manufacturing one-stop PCB assembly services for you. If you want to solder specific devices, we will also provide such services.
Avoid the trouble of purchasing PCB components, make you focus on your PCBA design. Our purchasing team will purchase more components from the same supplier and use the best method to complete the purchasing task. We will optimize packaging (belt, tube, bulk, etc.) with quantity selection in smaller BOM to reduce cost. We have the ability to handle difficult-to-order materials and obsolete components. We purchase materials according to the material model and manufacturer in your BOM. Don't worry about the danger of any alternative materials. We will not change your design. Alternative materials will also be approved by you before use.
Partnering with a PCB assembly manufacturer can provide cost savings and other benefits. In the production process, there are costs associated with labor, production equipment, and material handling. By partnering with a manufacturer, it is possible to secure bulk discounts and cost savings as it relates to labor and materials. Additionally, a PCB assembly manufacturer can offer access to better quality components at lower prices.
Given the complex nature of PCB assembly, a good partner should be able to provide specialized expertise and advice to ensure quality and reliability. This support network can be invaluable, leading to greater cost savings and improved product performance. Additionally, this can eliminate the need to invest in costly machinery and specialized staff.
In addition to cost savings, partnering with a PCB assembly manufacturer can offer greater flexibility. Working with a qualified partner enables the ability to quickly ramp up production to meet customer demands. This eliminates the need to have a large-scale production system in place before taking on orders.
Overall, partnering with a PCB assembly manufacturer can provide cost savings, streamlined production process, and access to cutting edge technology. With the right partner, businesses can enjoy increased efficiency and cost savings in the long-run.
A PCB assembly manufacturer can provide a wide range of customer support and after-sales services. These services may include consultation services to help with design and production, quality assurance protocols to ensure quality products, technology transfer for customers who need to move to a new assembly process, on-site and remote technical support, and engineering support teams. Additionally, they can provide training services such as courses, seminars, and webinars to help keep personnel up to date on advancements in assembly technology. Lastly, PCB assembly manufacturers can provide a variety of repair services such as component rework, reballing of BGA packages, and relabelling of PCB which have become damaged during assembly.
These services allow organizations to remain competitive in today's ever-changing marketplace by ensuring quick resolution to any issues and maximizing the lifecycle of their products. Ultimately, this ensures customer satisfaction and ensures that they come back for future business.
A reputable PCB assembly manufacturer should possess the essential certifications and industry standards, such as ISO 9001/14001, IPC/IPC-A-610, UL/CSA, RoHS, and REACH.
ISO 9001 is an international quality management standard that ensures the consistent delivery of quality and performance. ISO 14001 is an international environmental management standard that helps organizations protect the environment, comply with regulations, and improve environmental performance.
IPC/IPC-A-610 is the most widely used industry standard for quality inspection of electronics assemblies. It outlines standards for Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies and provides critical criteria for assessing printed circuits boards and other electronic assemblies.
UL/CSA is an internationally recognized safety certification for products and components. UL or UL Underwriters Laboratories certifies that products meet safety standards, including line noise, electrical shock, and fire resistance, among others. It ensures the safety of products and components throughout their lifecycle.
RoHS is an international environmental regulation that limits the use of hazardous materials in electrical and electronic products. It ensures that materials used in products are free of hazardous chemical materials such as lead, mercury, and cadmium.
REACH is another international environmental regulation designed to protect human health and the environment from the dangers of chemical substances. It requires manufacturers to demonstrate that their products are free from hazardous substances.
These certifications and industry standards demonstrate a PCB assembly manufacturer's commitment to quality, safety, and environmental friendliness. Having them is essential for any reputable PCB assembly manufacturer.
he pricing structure of a PCB assembly manufacturer is highly dependent on a variety of factors. These include the complexity of the PCB assembly, the type and number of components required, the type of manufacturing process and materials used, the production volume, and the turnaround time for the assembly.
The complexity of the PCB assembly is a major factor influencing the pricing structure. More intricate PCBs require additional components, more time for setup and testing, and more expensive materials. PCBs with fewer components, simpler circuitry, and shorter assembly times typically cost less than more complex boards.
The type and number of components necessary for the PCB assembly also impacts the pricing. Costlier components such as ICs (Integrated Circuits) and custom-made parts will increase the cost of the assembly, whereas simpler parts such as resistors and capacitors will be cheaper. The type of production process also affects the pricing structure of a PCB assembly manufacturer. Options like surface mount technology (SMT) and through-hole technology (THT) require different manufacturing processes and can influence pricing significantly.
Finally, the production volume and turnaround time also affect the pricing structure. Lower production quantities and faster turnaround times typically result in higher assembly costs, while larger production volumes and slower turnaround times result in lower costs.
Active components (active components) include: chip (IC), memory chip (memory), discrete components;
Passive components include capacitors, resistors, relays, oscillators, sensors, rectifier bridges, optocouplers, connectors, chips, fuses, inductors, switches, diodes, transistors, etc.;
Chip: The English abbreviation is IC, also known as an integrated circuit. It is a device with a certain function formed by integrating transistors, resistors, capacitors, and other components on a silicon substrate using a special process.
Capacitor: It is a component composed of two metal films close together and separated by insulating materials. The characteristic of the capacitor is mainly to block the direct current and pass the alternating current. Generally, it is indicated by "C" plus a number in the circuit (for example, C21 represents the capacitor numbered 21).
Resistors: The main functions of resistors in the pcb plates are: shunting, current limiting, voltage division, biasing, etc., generally represented by "R" plus a number in the circuit (for example, R2 represents the resistor numbered 2).
Inductor: It is an energy storage element that can convert electrical energy into magnetic field energy and store energy in the magnetic field. It often works with capacitors to form LC filters, LC oscillators, etc. The commonly used symbol L indicates that its basic unit is Henry (H), and millihenry (mH) is commonly used as the unit.
Relay: A relay is an electrical control device. In fact, it is an "automatic switch" that uses a small current to control the operation of a large current. The circuit plays the role of automatic adjustment, safety protection, and conversion circuit;
Oscillator: An electronic component used to generate repetitive electronic signals (usually sine waves or square waves). It is an energy conversion device-an an electronic circuit or device that can convert direct current into an alternating current signal with a certain frequency. The circuit formed by it is called an oscillating circuit;
Sensor: It is a detection device; it can transform the measured information into electrical signals or other required forms of information output to meet the requirements of information transmission, processing, storage, display, recording, and control. According to its basic perception function, it is usually divided into ten categories: heat-sensitive components, photosensitive components, gas-sensitive components, force-sensitive components, magnetic sensitive components, humidity sensitive components, acoustic components, radiation-sensitive components, color-sensitive components, and taste sensitive components.
Rectifier bridge: the rectifier tube is enclosed in a shell, and the rectification work is completed through the unidirectional conduction principle of the diode, and the alternating current is converted into the direct current;
Optocoupler: Use light as a medium to transmit electrical signals. It has a good isolation effect on input and output electrical signals and is widely used in digital circuits.
Connector: generally refers to electrical connectors. A device that connects two active devices, a device that transmits current or signals. Such as a common socket;
Wafer: mainly composed of arsenic (AS), aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and strontium (Sr). It is the light-emitting component of LED, LED The most core part;
Generally speaking, soldering patch components is a process of fixing PCB components - soldering PCB components - cleaning PCB
Manual welding steps of patch components - cleaning and fixing PCB - fixing patch components - tin on one pin for components with few pins - fixed welding for components with few pins - welding the remaining pins - drag welding for patch chips with more pins - removing excess solder - cleaning the place where PCB components are welded
As PCB and PCB components become smaller and more precise, it becomes more and more difficult to manually weld PCB components. It is even impossible to manually weld PCB, so a professional PCB components welding manufacturer must be required to complete this work. iPCB has advanced PCB components welding and SMT equipment. It provides customers with professional PCB components welding services
Our Turnkey PCB board assemblies are widely used in Industrial and Energy, Medical and Healthcare, Automotive, Information and Communication Technology, Wearables, consumer electronics.
Our PCB board manufacture and Turnkey PCB assembly service
1. No MOQ for Printed circuit board and PCBA
2. One-stop solution for various OEM electronic PCB assembly.
3. Professional PCB Board engineer for one-to-one service.
3. 100% PCBA AOI tested guarantee before shipping
4. RoHS, UL, ISO, SGS certificate approved
5. Factory production Capability of 30000 sqm/month
6. Turnkey EMS (electronics manufacturing service) including PCB manufacturing, components sourcing, PCB assembly, PCBA conformal coating, box build, PCBA function testing.
7. Excellent Customer Service to Meet Your Special Needs
8. Shipment on time.
PCBs We Can Make
1. Rigid PCBs, Flex PCBs, and Rigid-Flex PCBs
2. Aluminum Backed PCBs and Metal Core PCBs
3. Advanced PCBs. such as DHIPCBs, Hight TG PCBs, High-Frequency PCB, Carbon Ink PCB, Special Material PCB, Thick Copper PCB
Turnkey PCB Assembly Technical requirement
1. Professional Surface-mounting and Through-hole soldering Technology.
2. Various sizes like 1206,0805,0603 components SMT technology.
3. ICT(In-Circuit Test), FCT(Functional Circuit Test) technology.
4. Turnkey PCB Assembly With UL, CE, FCC, Rohs Approval.
5. Nitrogen gas reflow soldering technology for SMT.
6. High Standard SMT&Solder Assembly Line.
7. High density interconnected board placement technology capacity.
The PCB assembly manufacturer processes a wide variety of high-end SMT components, such as fine-pitch components, 0201/008004 components, ball grid array (BGA) components, Quad Flat Pack (QFP) components, flip chip components, Micro-QFP components, BGA pakage components, CSP components, and Leadless Chip Carriers (LCCs). Depending on the type of component, the manufacturer may use manual or automated processes to assemble the PCB. Manual processes are used when components have tight tolerances, intricate shapes, or require special attention to details. Automated processes are used to place higher volume components at a faster speed. In addition, the manufacturer may apply soldering processes, such as reflow oven, hot gas, or wave soldering, as well as conformal coating and selective soldering processes, to ensure that all components are securely and permanently mounted on the PCB.
The PCB assembly manufacturer has a variety of quality control measures in place to ensure that assembly takes place with precision and quality. Before the assembly process begins, the raw material is inspected for quality and accuracy against the design specifications. During the assembly process, the critical components are placed acurately and securely to reduce the risk of failure in the future. After assembly, the printed circuit board is tested for any potential electrical or mechanical problems using automated testing processes and specific testing equipment. A visual inspection for mechanical and electrical completeness or any incongruences is conducted as well. For boards with multiple components, these components are also tested separately to ensure they match the specifications established by the board designers. In addition to that, the solder joints are also evaluated to verify that there are no shorts, cold solders, or bridges. All these processes ensure the highest degree of precision and quality in the PCB assembly process.
Yes, most PCB assembly manufacturers provide in-circuit functional testing. This testing is conducted to check for electrical and logical discrepancies in order to make sure that the components are operating as intended. It is usually carried out on a custom test board, with a circuit diagram loaded onto it. This ensures that the board is properly powered and that each component behaves according to the programmed logic.
During the test, the PCB assembly manufacturer will check the power lines, input/output connections, and analog/digital signals. In order to ensure that the components are capable of working together, certain stress tests are performed to simulate various conditions. This includes testing a variety of temperatures, environmental conditions, and other factors that can affect the board’s performance. If any discrepancies are found, the manufacturer can then take steps to fix them.
In some cases, the PCB assembly manufacturer may offer more complex testing. This might include additional tests such as vibration test, temperature shock test, and EMI/EMC testing. These tests allow for the detection of any issues related to the components’ environmental conditions and electromagnetic compatibility.
In any case, in-circuit testing is crucial to making sure that the PCB assembly works as intended. By testing the components during the manufacturing process, any issues can be quickly identified and fixed, which helps to ensure that the end product is reliable.
No. A PCB assembly manufacturer cannot guarantee no-defect solder joints with the right temperature profile. The temperature profile is important in achieving the desired solder joint characteristics, however a variety of other factors can lead to defects in the assembly. These include cleanliness of the component and PCB surfaces, soldering paste volume and spread, component and pad placement and alignment, and human factor errors while soldering. In order to achieve defect free soldering, the manufacturer must ensure all of these things are in place, as well as properly controlling the temperature profile. Additionally, manufacturing processes must be properly validated and inspected in order to identify any defects before the assembly is shipped to customers.
Yes, many PCB assembly manufacturers have the capacity to apply BGA, PoP and other sophisticated packaging technologies. They have the necessary equipment to accurately and efficiently insert the components in the board. Many have automated machines that are used in the production process. The machines use high-resolution optical and X-ray imaging to view the board and accurately place each component and solder it in the correct place. After the components have been placed, the manufacturer can use a reflow oven to heat the board to the ideal temperature to ensure a secure bond. Quality assurance tests are also done to ensure that the PCB assembly meets all of the requirements. Furthermore, manufacturers will use a coating to protect the board from any chemicals, water, or UV light damage. Overall, the use of these sophisticated packaging technologies allows a PCB assembly manufacturer to produce quality assemblies while meeting time and cost constraints.
Yes, most PCB assembly manufacturers do accept flexible printed circuit boards for assembly. Flexible printed circuits are a type of board design that offers a variety of advantages over traditional rigid boards. For example, these designs enable increased efficiency and cost savings due to their ability to fit components in small spaces, as well as reduce assembly time and space. In addition, the flexibility and lightweight construction of these boards allows them to be used in a variety of applications, from automotive to medical devices.
When considering the assembly capabilities of PCB manufacturers, firms should consider the complexity of the product and the type of assembly it requires. Many manufacturers are able to assemble single or double sided boards, while some may specialize in surface mount technology or have the capability to build more complex PCBs. As with any type of board, detailed information, such as board layout and design must be provided for a successful outcome. As such, proper communication through the design to the assembly cycle is key to ensure accuracy and quality assurance.
The majority of PCB assembly manufacturers are capable of handling flexible printed circuit boards. As with any technology, however, it is always important to check with the manufacturer of choice for their specific capabilities. Understanding the complexities of a given board, as well as the desired output, will help to ensure successful completion and positive results.
There are two primary types of PCB Assembly: thru-hole and surface-mount technology. Thru-hole PCB Assembly involves components with leads that are inserted into holes drilled in the PCB substrate and then soldered in place. Surface-mount technology, on the other hand, involves components that are placed directly on the surface of the PCB, held in place with their leads and connected to each other through the use of solder.
Thru-hole PCB Assembly is often used for large, bulky components such as connectors, switches, and potentiometers. It is generally used when a component must be able to tolerate more stress or vibration than can be achieved through surface-mount technology. It is also a popular choice for components that require high-reliability connections such as high-voltage transformers and inductors.
Surface-mount technology is typically used for components that are small in size and able to withstand low levels of stress and vibration. It is also used when signal integrity is critical, as it can provide improved signal integrity due to the precise connections it provides. It requires less board space and allows for high-density boards in which many components can be packed into a very minimal amount of board space.
Overall, both thru-hole and surface-mount PCB Assembly are used to create PCBs that offer reliability and performance. The type of assembly used depends on the components being used and the requirements of the PCB.
PCB assemblies are incredibly versatile and are used in a variety of different applications. Due to the fact that they are extremely customizable, they can be used in almost any application.
For example, they are used in consumer applications across industries such as automotive, aerospace, medical, industrial, and consumer electronics. They are widely used to help power and control all of the electronic components that are used in these industries.
In the field of industrial automation, PCB assemblies are used to help drive the advanced machines that produce goods for consumers. From industrial robots to automated assembly lines, PCB assemblies are critical components in helping keep factories running smoothly.
In the medical field, PCB assemblies are used in a variety of devices. These include medical implants, pacemakers, imaging machines, and laboratory equipment. They provide control for all of the components required to make these devices operate smoothly.
In consumer electronics, PCB assemblies are a critical part of powering phones, cameras, gaming consoles, and TVs. They are also commonly used in computers and laptops.
Finally, PCB assemblies are used in an array of applications in the aerospace industry. These include avionics, power equipment, robotics, and navigation systems.
Overall, PCB assembles are highly versatile and can be used in a wide range of applications. The fact that they are so customizable makes them ideal for any application.
The production process of PCB Assembly involves several basic steps, beginning with the design and engineering process. This includes creating a schematic to define the components of the board and a prototype board, which is then used to test the functionality of the board.
Next, the components are soldered to the printed circuit board, including all components and surface mount technology components. This requires a skilled technician to ensure that all components are soldered correctly and securely.
After soldering, the board must be tested for power and signals. This process uses different modern tools to verify the electrical characteristics of the printed circuit board and to make sure it is running correctly.
The next step is to assemble the assembly into its final product, whether it is an electronic part or an entire device. This includes manual assembling, reflow soldering, and wave soldering. This process must be done carefully and accurately to avoid any damages to the PCB.
Finally, the PCB assembly must be inspected for quality assurance. This includes visual inspections, electrical tests, checking all components, and soldering. After that, the PCB assembly is ready to be used or shipped.
When soldering and installing PCB Assembly, there are many important considerations that you should be aware of in order to ensure the assembly is reliable and works as intended.
First, you should be aware of the soldering temperature and technique required for each component to ensure a secure connection. It is also important to use the correct solder in order to ensure the desired electrical connection is achieved.
Next, you should consider solder masking. This prevents solder bridging, the risk of short circuits, and the accumulation of undesirable copper oxides.
In addition, it is important to pay attention to the polarity of components such as diodes or transistors to ensure the correct electrical connections are being made. Furthermore, while installing components, it is important to exercise care so that the components are not damaged or broken due to poor handling.
Finally, after all components are soldered and installed to the board, it is important to inspect the board visually to ensure that all components are installed correctly and that desirable electrical connections have been made. If the board passes the visual inspection, a thorough electrical inspection should be performed to detect any flaws or errors in the assembly. Following these procedures will help ensure that the PCB assembly is reliable and works as intended.
Visual Inspection: Before any electrical testing is performed, a visual inspection of all parts of the PCB assembly circuit should be conducted to ensure that there is no sign of damage. This includes inspecting for missing parts, shorts, open circuits, cold solder joints, loose connections, incorrect components, etc.
Solder Testing: The solder joints for all parts should be tested to verify that the solder is properly seated and there are no cold solder joints, shorted pins, etc.
Electrical Testing: Electrical tests should be performed to check the functioning of the components and ensure that all components are wired correctly. This could include testing the current upon application of a voltage, testing for shorts and opens, reverse bias testing, and leakage testing.
Functional Testing: Finally, once all the components have been verified to be wired correctly and are in working condition, the PCB should be tested under real-world conditions to ensure that it can handle the load and conditions for which it was designed. This could include stress testing, vibration testing, temperature testing, etc.
There are many surface treatments for PCB assembly including hot air solder levelling (HASL), plate gold, nickel gold, silver plating, tin soldering, immersion gold, lead free HASL, hard gold plating, and organic solderability preservative (OSP).
Hot Air Solder Levelling (HASL) is a process of electrolytically plating a metal layer onto the surface of the board, then reflowing the solder in an oven with hot air used to level the surface and provide a uniform solder coating.
Plating Gold or Nickel Gold is an electroplating process in which gold or nickel is coated on copper. This provides good contact between a component and the pad, as well as shielding against corrosion, oxidation, and other environmental agents.
Silver Plating is an electroplating process in which silver is deposited on the copper surface. This process provides good electrical contact between a component and the pad, as well as superior corrosion and chemical resistance.
Tin Soldering is a process in which tin is applied to a pre-tinned copper surface. This process is used to reduce bridging between two components and can reduce solder wicking.
Immersion gold is an electroplating process in which a particular type of gold is applied to the copper surface. This process provides good electrical contact between a component and the pad, as well as superior corrosion and chemical resistance.
Lead Free HASL is a process used to provide a lead-free finish on the board’s surface. It uses a halide flux to remove existing layers of lead and tin before applying a lead-free solder coating.
Hard Gold Plating is an electroplating process in which a specific type of hardened gold is applied to the copper surface. This process is otherwise known as hard (or thick) gold plating and provides superior electrical contact and corrosion protection.
Organic Solderability Preservative (OSP) is a process used to provide a protective top coat on the boards surface. OSP protects the board's surface from corrosion and oxidation, while making it easier for the components to be soldered in place.
PCB Assembly can be used in a variety of high-end applications, including space exploration, medical devices, consumer electronics, industrial automation, military systems, and aerospace equipment. For space exploration, PCB assemblies are often used to help operate and control equipment, including satellites, vehicles, and probes.
Medical device PCB assemblies are used to manufacture and control various medical devices, including CT scanners, MRI machines, X-ray machines, and blood analyzers. In consumer electronics, PCB assemblies are used to manufacture and control devices, including computers, phones, TVs, and tablets. For industrial automation, PCB assemblies are used to control and power robotic machinery, sensors, and relay logic.
Military systems and aerospace equipment also rely on PCB assemblies. For example, PCB assemblies are used to power and control navigation systems, weapons systems, and communication systems. Additionally, PCB assemblies are used to manage complex flight control systems, which are critical for aeronautic operations.
PCB assembly is a highly specialized field and requires a lot of skill and expertise, but with the help of experienced professionals, it can create some of the most complex pieces of equipment in the world.
PCB assembly is a process of assembling components onto a printed circuit board (PCB). This process includes placement of components, soldering, inspection of assembly, electrical testing and other final processes. PCB assembly can be divided into two types: Through-hole (THT) and Surface-mount (SMT).
Through-Hole (THT) Assembly: Through-Hole (THT) involves insertion and soldering of components that have wire leads. This type of assembly is relatively slow and is used in cases where components are large or more durable.
Surface-Mount (SMT) Assembly: Surface-Mount (SMT) is the process of soldering components to the surface of the PCB. This process is much faster and requires use of automated equipment. Components on surface mount assembly are much smaller and use less space on the board.
In order to achieve the highest quality and reliability of the PCB assembly process, it is important to use the right models and specifications. Different materials and components have different characteristics, thus it is important to select the correct model and specifications. Generally speaking, the most important models and specifications are:
* Component types – passive components, active components, mechanical components
* Package types – leaded, leadless, BGA, etc
* Material types – FR4, high-temperature plastic, polyimide, etc
* Solder type – leaded, lead-free, etc
* Festool type – water-soluble, no-clean, etc
* Mounting orientation – through-hole, surface-mount, etc.
In addition to this, the selection of PCB assembly process needs to be tailored to meet the specific needs of the application. It is important that the right type of assembly is chosen in order to ensure the highest quality and reliability of the finished product.
The installation process of PCB Assembly involves the following steps:
Choosing Components: There are different types of components that are used in PCB assembly, so it is important to ensure that the correct components are selected for the specific application.
Surface Preparation: Before installation, the board must be cleaned and dried. If necessary, the surface may also need to be sanded, scraped, or burned before installation.
Positioning Components: Components must be carefully positioned onto the board, aligned, and secured. This includes both manual and automated component alignment.
Soldering Components: It is important to ensure that all electrical connections are correctly soldered in order to ensure complete electrical connections and overall performance.
Finishing Process: This includes thorough testing to ensure that the assembly is working correctly, and completing the assembly with conformal coating, when necessary.
Once the installation process is complete, the PCB assembly can be ready for use in its intended device or application.
The circuit design of PCB assembly is critical because it determines the performance of the circuit, as well as the reliability of the entire PCB design and assembly. Poorly designed or poorly assembled circuits can lead to unreliable or ineffective results, which in turn can lead to costly component repairs and replacements. As such, circuit design for PCB assembly plays an important role in ensuring correct system operation, and minimizing downtime and maintenance costs.
The design of the circuit itself should consider an array of factors such as, component layout, circuit trace length and width, voltage drop across components, power dissipation, noise protection, and signal integrity. Additionally, the circuit design has to ensure that components are placed such that maximum performance is achieved while at the same time maintaining manufacturability. During PCB assembly, circuit traces should be clean and without any soldering defects, and the layout should be optimized and verified for correct operation.
More broadly, good circuit design involves taking advantage of the capabilities of modern components and technologies, to innovate and create small, high-performance circuits that are energy efficient and reliable. A well-designed circuit will help ensure the product’s overall success. Proper circuit design is also essential for meeting regulatory and safety standards, and can help reduce the potential for costly recalls.
In summary, the design of PCB assembly circuitry can highly impact the performance, reliability, and safety of a product. Careful design and assembly is critical for achieving the best results and can help make the product more cost effective.
Purchasing: This step involves sourcing all the needed components, materials, and boards for the assembly.
Pre-assembly Preparation: Before the PCB is populated with its components, the board needs to be thoroughly inspected to ensure that there is no dirt or other undesired material on the board.
PCB Assembly: At this stage, components such as integrated circuits (ICs), resistors, capacitors, and other electrical components are added to the circuit board.
Soldering: During this step, the components are soldered to the board using either manual or automated soldering techniques. This process helps to ensure that the components are properly connected to the board.
Inspection: After soldering, an optical inspection is carried out to confirm that the parts are connected as required and that all electrical connections are in place.
Testing: This step ensures that the PCB is working correctly and that it meets the desired specifications. Testing may involve a series of tests like functional tests, environmental tests, durability tests, etc.
Post-production: This step involves cleaning and packaging the product for shipment. It also includes labeling, creating the prints, and documents related to the product.
Experience: Experienced pcb assembly manufacturers have a great understanding of their craft and can produce the highest-quality product. Experienced manufacturers are often highly organized and are able to work with tight deadlines.
Quality Control: Quality control processes are essential for ensuring high-quality products and minimizing costly mistakes. Look for a manufacturer that implements a comprehensive quality control system, including thorough testing processes and ISO certifications.
Capacity and Scalability: Quality PCBA manufacturers have the capacity and scalability to keep up with large orders. Ask about the manufacturer’s capabilities and make sure they have the resources to produce complex designs on time and accurately.
Lead Times: Time is a critical factor in PCB assembly. A quality manufacturer will deliver on time, and they should be able to provide clear timelines and reasonable delivery windows.
Pricing: Price should not be the only factor when selecting a pcb assembly manufacturer, but it is still wise to get several quotes when making your decision. Check for hidden costs such as shipping and make sure there are no surprises in the fine print.
Overall, to evaluate the quality of a pcb assembly manufacturer, consider their experience, quality control processes, capacity and scalability, lead times, and pricing. A quality manufacturer should be able to meet your project requirements and deliver the product on time and on budget.
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